Monday, March 14, 2016

The Marriages and Scandals of Lucrezia Borgia (1480 - 1519)

Lucrezia Borgia

Painting by Bartolomeo Veneziano

Twenty-eleven was a good year for the Borgias, who were depicted in not one but two television shows. In fact, I was bored at home with Netflix one night when I decided to watch Jeremy Irons play Rodrigo in Showtime’s The Borgias, only to discover that the show on Netflix was not The Borgias but Borgia, an entirely separate show produced by Canal Plus.

Neither show is for the faint of heart, as stories about the Borgia are generally told with a sneer or a blush. Lucrezia’s life was none too pious and, as with many women of the era, she was played like a chess piece by the men in her family. This is not to say, of course, that Lucrezia didn’t have a few tricks of her own—namely the rumored empty ring on her hand she often filled with poison.

The Fairest of All

Rumors riddle Lucrezia’s biography, but certain things are clear: she was born in 1480 an illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia, later the corrupt Pope Alexander VI.

Pope Alexander VI

She bedazzled onlookers with her hazel eyes, perfect complexion, and waves of golden hair that fell past her knees as she walked gracefully down the aisle with her first husband Giovanni Sforza.

Lucrezia Borgia

Giovanni Sforza
Condottiere and Lord of Pesaro and Gradara

The marriage was more an alliance—when Rodrigo became Pope Alexander VI, he needed strong allies like the Sforza family, even if it meant annulling Lucrezia’s previous engagement to a lord in Valencia.

The Unconsummated Marriage

Eventually, the pope no longer needed the Sforzas. While many theories abound regarding the divorce, it is generally accepted that when the pope ordered Giovanni’s quiet execution, Cesare informed his sister and Lucrezia convinced her husband to flee Rome.

Cesare Borgia 

Another popular (and perhaps juicier) rumor, however, is that Cesare and Lucrezia were having an incestuous affair and Giovanni simply needed eliminating, even if it meant putting words into the pope’s mouth. Either way, the pope claimed the marriage had not been consummated, that it was invalid, and that his daughter was free to “choose” her next husband, never mind that she was supposedly pregnant at the time of the annulment.

The Fruit of Said Unconsummated Marriage

Lucrezia awaited the divorce at the convent of San Sisto and there, before her marriage to Alfonso of Aragon, allegedly gave birth to a son named Giovanni, known today as Roman Infante. It was not long before two papal bulls were issued concerning little Giovanni, neither of them mentioning Lucrezia as his mother—one, that he was Cesare’s child from an affair before his marriage, and another that Giovanni was Pope Alexander’s child. It was assumed at the time that Giovanni’s was Cesare’s brood, but Giovanni later stayed with Lucrezia in Ferrara, where he was accepted as her half-brother.

Giovanni Borgia

A Pearl Among Women

When her second husband died, Lucrezia was handed to Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, with whom she had numerous children and besides whom she had many extramarital affairs.

Alfonso d'Este

These included her married brother-in-law, who later contracted syphilis and kindly ended matters with Lucrezia, as well as the noted French soldier, the Chevalier Bayard, who described her as a “pearl among women.”

Chevalier Bayard

Lucrezia died in October 1519 at the age of 39 after the complicated birth of her eight child and buried in the convent of Corpus Domini. Her legacy—beauty, incest, murder, passionate affairs, and perhaps above all courage, or rather nerve—is one that fascinates historians, storytellers, and gossips alike. She did, after all, survive the fall of the Borgias after Pope Alexander VI’s death. The same cannot be said for everyone.

Amanda Tradwick is a grant researcher and writer for She has a Bachelor's degrees from the University of Delaware, and has recently finished research on college grants for minorities and vermont education grants.

For fans of Philippa Gregory and Alison Weir, bestselling author C. W. Gortner effortlessly weaves history and drama in this captivating novel about one of the world’s most notorious families. Glamorous and predatory, the Borgias fascinated and terrorized fifteenth-century Italy, and Lucrezia Borgia, beloved daughter of the pope, was at the center of the dynasty’s ambitions. Slandered as a heartless seductress who lured men to their doom, was she in fact the villainess of legend, or was she trapped in a familial web, forced to choose between loyalty and survival?

With the ascension of the Spaniard Rodrigo Borgia as Pope Alexander VI, a new era has dawned in Rome. Benefitting from their father’s elevation are the new pope’s illegitimate children—his rival sons, Cesare and Juan, and beautiful young daughter Lucrezia—each of whom assumes an exalted position in the papal court. Privileged and adored, Lucrezia yearns to escape her childhood and play a part in her family’s fortunes. But Rome is seductive and dangerous: Alliances shift at a moment’s notice as Italy’s ruling dynasties strive to keep rivals at bay. As Lucrezia’s father faces challenges from all sides, the threat of a French invasion forces him to marry her off to a powerful adversary. But when she discovers the brutal truth behind her alliance, Lucrezia is plunged into a perilous gambit that will require all her wits, cunning, and guile. Escaping her marriage offers the chance of happiness with a passionate prince of Naples, yet as scandalous accusations of murder and incest build against her, menacing those she loves, Lucrezia must risk everything to overcome the lethal fate imposed upon her by her Borgia blood.

Beautifully wrought, rich with fascinating historical detail, The Vatican Princess is the first novel to describe Lucrezia’s coming-of-age in her own voice. What results is a dramatic, vivid tale set in an era of savagery and unparalleled splendor, where enemies and allies can be one and the same, and where loyalty to family can ultimately be a curse.


Lucrezia Borgia continues to fascinate readers centuries after the Italian Renaissance. The scandals, sexual escapades, incest, failed marriages, murders, and intrigues from all members of the Borgia family and those closest to them seems almost too crazy to believe. How much is truth and how much is legend? Were they victims of slander by their enemies? Only the Borgias will ever truly know.

As the doted upon bastard child of Pope Alexander VI, and younger sister to Cesare and Juan Borgia, and because of her great beauty, she easily became prey to the political aspirations of her male relatives. 

In the recently released novel, THE VATICAN PRINCESS, author Christopher Gortner writes a rich first person narrative about Lucrezia’s life whereby he truly brings to vibrant life all the colors of the Italian Renaissance. In Gortner’s version of Lucrezia and her family, we read a tamer version of the legendary events that framed her life. He strongly portrays her as a good, much maligned heroine while painting the her father and brothers in a very dark light. His novel ends before Lucrezia’s third marriage to Alfonso d’Este, the Duke of Ferrara.

Even though the book does not encompass her entire life and cover all the intrigues that swirled about her and her family, I did enjoy Gornter’s version of her life. Lovely, flowing, first person prose with vivid descriptions of fashion and surrounds held my fascination to the end. Not my favourite novel about Lucrezia’s life, but a very good one! 


QNPoohBear said...

Interesting post. I first heard about her in Gregory Maguire's novel Mirror, Mirror. Lucrezia is the wicked queen/step-mother character.

Borjas2493 said...

Lucrezia Borgia is my ancestor. So its really awesome to read things about her and her family. :)

BanditQueen said...

Lucretia was a beautiful and intelligent woman, who was the pawn of her evil brother and father: the Borgia Pope and his son, Cesare. I felt sorry for her at first, but she did come good in the end, having a successful third marriage and a number of children, three of whom had successful careers. The convent that guards her remains and that of her family prays for her soul and she has a very unadorned and plain stone as her last marker for her grave. Unlike most of her infamous family, Lucretia in the end seems to have learnt what true piety means

Mirella Patzer said...

There is such a strong fascination with Lucretia Borgia. I'll never get enough of this famous woman, immortalized in novels and tv. Thanks for leaving a comment.